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Laste vaktsineerimine

Iga lapse organismi kaitseb immuunsüsteem. Meie võimuses on seda süsteemi tema eripärasid arvestades tugevamaks muuta.

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Täiskasvanutele

Täiskasvanu puutub iga päev kokku tuhandete haigusetekitajatega. Nende eest pakub kaitset immuunsüsteem, mis töötab pidevalt ja märkamatult. Vaktsineerimine aitab organismil ohte ära tunda ja neile vastu astuda.

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Tervishoiutöötajatele

Tervishoiutöötajatel on väga oluline roll vaktsineerimise elluviimisel. Neilt saadud info ja selgitused mõjutavad inimeste otsuseid ning kogutud tagasiside ja statistika aitavad suunata vaktsineerimispoliitikat.

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Reisivaktsineerimine ja profülaktika

Nakkushaiguste vältimiseks peaksid riskipiirkondadesse sõitjad pöörduma vähemalt 4 nädalat enne reisi algust oma perearsti poole või reisimeditsiini kabinetti tervisekontrolliks ja vajadusel ka vaktsineerimiseks.

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The elderly

In the fifties, the immune system starts to weaken and immunodeficiency develops by the age of 60–65 years. This increases the risk of developing various infectious diseases.
 

Immunodeficient people can be vaccinated with inactivated vaccines (not live attenuated vaccines). In this case, note that usually:

  • it takes more time to develop immunity;
  • the level of developing immunity is lower and it is worth checking with a serologic test (relevant test);
  • in case of a low immunity level, further vaccination should be considered.

The following conditions or circumstances are not deemed contraindications of vaccination:

  • fever of <38.5ºC;
  • treatment with antibiotics;
  • local corticosteroid treatment;
  • asthma, eczema, atopy, hay fever;
  • exposure to people with the infectious disease (e.g.people sick with influenza);
  • it is not known whether or against which disease the person has been previously vaccinated.

Both influenza and pneumococcal infection are dangerous to immunodeficient older people (especially ≥ 65 years old). Therefore, it is recommended that they be vaccinated every five years with a pneumococcal PKV13 or PPV23 vaccine and with a seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccine. People over the age of 50 should also be vaccinated against herpes zoster.

 

A diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine should be given to all people ≥ 65 years of age who are in close contact with young children (up to one year old).

 

Recommended vaccines in the case of diseases

  • In case of asthma, chronic heart, lung, liver or kidney disease, or diabetes, vaccination is recommended against influenza.
  • In the case of renal failure or nephrosis, vaccination is recommended against pneumococcal infection.
  • It is recommended that people with a tumour be vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcal infection.
  • During and after chemotherapy, patients may be vaccinated with inactivated vaccines.
  • During the period of pronounced neutropenia (neutrophil count of <0.5 x 109 / l), no vaccines are administered.
  • It is recommended that older people with autoimmune diseases (especially rheumatoid arthritis, sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus) wo are receiving immunosuppressive treatment be vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcal infection.